Bacteriology & Microbiology


Big scientific encyclopedia "Bacteriology and Microbiology": archaea, microscopic eukaryotes, parasies, procaryotes, viruses, infectious deseases.
99 Dictionaries: The world of terms
March 3, 2022
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Big scientific encyclopedia “Bacteriology and Microbiology”: archaea, microscopic eukaryotes, parasies, procaryotes, viruses, infectious deseases.

Microbiology is the science that studies microorganisms, including single-celled organisms, multicellular organisms and acellular organisms, their biological characteristics and relationships with other organisms. The area of ​​interest of microbiology includes their taxonomy, morphology, physiology, biochemistry, evolution, role in ecosystems, as well as the possibility of practical use.

Sections of microbiology: bacteriology, mycology, virology, parasitology and others. Depending on the ecological characteristics of microorganisms, the conditions of their habitation, the prevailing relationship with the environment and the practical needs of man, the science of microorganisms in its development was differentiated into such special disciplines as general microbiology, medical, industrial (technical), space, geological, agricultural and veterinary microbiology.

Bacteria are the domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Bacteria usually reach several micrometers in length, their cells can be of various shapes: from spherical to rod-shaped and spiral-shaped. Bacteria are one of the first life forms on Earth. They inhabit the soil, fresh and marine bodies of water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste and deep layers of the earth’s crust. Bacteria are often symbionts and parasites of plants and animals. Bacteria are studied by the science of bacteriology – a branch of microbiology.

Infection – infection of living organisms with microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa). The category of “infection” may also include infections with viruses, prions, rickettsiae, mycoplasmas, proteas, vibrios, parasites. The term “infection” means various types of interaction of foreign microorganisms with the human body, animals, plants.

An epidemic is a progressive spread of an infectious disease among people, significantly exceeding the level of morbidity usually registered in a given territory and capable of causing an emergency. Usually, the universal epidemiological threshold is considered to be the disease of 5% of the inhabitants of the territory, or sometimes 5% of any social group. The branch of medicine that studies epidemics of both infectious and non-infectious diseases and methods of combating them is epidemiology.

A virus is a non-cellular infectious agent that can only reproduce inside cells. Viruses infect all types of organisms, from plants and animals to bacteria and archaea (bacteria viruses are usually called bacteriophages). Viruses have also been found that can replicate only in the presence of other viruses (satellite viruses).

Antibiotics are drugs used to treat bacterial infections. They do not work against viral and many other infections. Antibiotics can kill microorganisms or stop them from multiplying, allowing natural defense mechanisms to eliminate them.

Bactericides, sometimes abbreviated as Bcidal, are substances that kill bacteria. Bactericides are disinfectants, antiseptics, or antibiotics. However, the surfaces of materials can also have bactericidal properties based solely on their physical surface structure, such as, for example, biomaterials such as insect wings.

Probiotics are live microorganisms that benefit the host when administered in adequate amounts or microorganisms that are used for therapeutic purposes, as well as foods and dietary supplements containing live microcultures.

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